Mugabe: The last of Africa’s ‘fathers of independence’
Paris: Robert Mugabe, who resigned as Zimbabwe`s president on Tuesday, was the final residing African head of state to have fought for his nation`s independence earlier than changing into its chief.
Mugabe, 93, had used his aura of liberator from a colonial energy to remain in energy however had more and more turn out to be seen as an oppressor.
His resignation got here days after Zimbabwe`s army took over the detained the veteran chief.
Under are the principle founding fathers of post-colonial Africa:
Born in 1909, Nkrumah fought on two fronts: for independence for the British Gold Coast and for pan-Africanism, calling for the creation of a United States of Africa.
He was prime minister upon independence in 1957, changing into president in 1960 of what turned Ghana.
He imposed a veritable persona cult, demanding that he be referred to as “Osagyefo”, or “redeemer”. Ousted throughout a coup in 1966, he died in exile in Romania in 1972.Toure was Guinea`s dictatorial first president after independence in 1958 till his demise in 1984.
He was the one African nationalist chief to have rejected a Franco-African neighborhood proposed by Common Charles de Gaulle, preferring outright independence to restricted autonomy. The poet and statesman turned Senegal`s first president in 1960, stepping down of his personal accord 20 years later and retiring to France, the place he died in 2001 aged 95.
Like different key gamers within the decolonisation of francophone Africa, Senghor had taken half in French politics whereas preventing for his nation`s emancipation.
A former French deputy and minister, Houphouet-Boigny was president of Ivory Coast from independence in 1960 till his demise in 1993. Often known as the Outdated One, he was one of many pioneers of the African emancipation battle.Nyerere in 1954 based the independence-oriented Tanganyika African Nationwide Union (TANU), which led the British colony to independence.
A supporter of African socialism, the founding father of what turned often known as Tanzania in 1964 was nicknamed the Instructor and led the nation from 1961 to 1985, stepping down of his personal accord.A former independence activist, imprisoned for a number of years, Kenyatta led Kenya from independence from Britain in December 1963 to his demise in 1978.
His US-educated son Uhuru was elected president in 2013 and once more this 12 months, although the outcomes of that vote are nonetheless disputed.Dubbed the “African Gandhi” for his non-violent independence-oriented activism, he turned the primary president of impartial Zambia in 1964.
He went on to guide the nation, often known as Northern Rhodesia underneath British rule, for 27 years underneath a single-party system. In 1991 he accepted free elections, at which he was defeated.In 1966 prime minister Hastings Kamuzu Banda turned Malawi`s first president, exercising a grip on energy for 3 a long time.
In 1993, underneath worldwide stress, he accepted a referendum on multi-party rule and was defeated on the first democratic elections in 1994. He died in South Africa three years later.Having fought towards the Portuguese colonial energy on the head of marxist motion Frelimo, Machel turned Mozambique`s first president in June 1975.
He died in October 1986 when his airplane crashed in South Africa in circumstances which stay unclear. His widow, Graca, then married South Africa`s president Nelson Mandela in 1998.